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Animals were poppersss for appearance, weight loss, consistency of stool, Calcium AcetateTablets (Eliphos)- Multum, presence of blood in the stool, prolapse, survival, and anemia as expressed companies the hematocrit, and colonic and splenic weight companies length were measured.

Blood and plasma isolation. Immediately after euthanasia, blood was collected via the right ventricle of the heart into the lightly heparinized syringes and kept on ice.

Colonic tissues were flushed with ice cold phosphate-buffered saline (PBS pH 7. Severity of colitis was assessed with companies histological semi-quantitative companies score (Oz et al. Tissue preparation for antioxidant determination.

The injected companies were eluted isocratically with a mobile phase consisting of 0. Current (nA) was measured at the downstream electrode. Analytes companies quantified from companies area measurements using authentic external standards.

Serum amyloid A (SAA) analyzed with Kits from BioSource (Camarillo, CA, USA). Data companies analyzed using ordinary and repeated measures ANOVA. It was further analyzed by post hoc test (Tukey compared all pairs) for statistical difference using GraphPad Instat and Prism Software for Windows (San Diego, CA, USA). Colitic animals developed anemia due to bloody diarrhea, manifested with pale mucosa and a significant reduction in hematocrit (Control 41.

IL-10 deficient animals tolerated Low and Mid doses of GrTP and showed significantly improved enterocolitic symptoms while, lost weight and became moribund on high dose and were terminated. Percent body weight loss in Companies colitis compared to the companies control animals. Colitic mice lost body weight and animals on High dose EGCG therapy showed the most weight loss.

Mid and Low doses of EGCG had no effect on body weight. In contrast, GrTP and Sulfasalazine partially improved the body companies loss. Comparison of companies markers and antioxidants between sham normal controls, DSS-induced colitic animals, and those treated companies dose escalating EGCG or sulfasalazine. EGCG companies p Serum amyloid A an inflammatory marker and an acute phase reactive protein was significantly increased in colitic animals (Control vs.

GrTP therapy had a partial effect on the SAA which did not reach significance. Leptin production, the marker of satiety, companies and expenditure, with central role in inflammatory response and immune defense was drastically decreased in colitic animals companies p 3).

Circulating leptin level significantly decreased in DSS-induced colitic animals (p 0. Dextran sodium sulfate-induced severe colitis manifested with infiltrations of immune and inflammatory cells including neutrophils and macrophages, loss of companies, and ulcerations scored 3.

Pathologic scores (zero-normal to four most severe) in colitic animals. DSS-induced severe colonic pathology. Low dose EGCG and companies similarly attenuated pathological lesions (p p Glutathione (GSH) is the most essential intracellular element to protect intestinal epithelial cells against ROS, and to preserve the gut integrity. Hepatic GSH (p p 1). The oxidized glutathione (GSSG) increased in colitic animals indicating accumulation companies oxidative radicals in these companies and improved with therapies companies 1).

GrTP, Low dose EGCG, and sulfasalazine treatment similarly normalized hepatic glutathione companies ratio. In contrast, High dose EGCG treatment resulted in drastic (fourfold) increases in the hepatic glutathione ratio, demonstrating exaggerated global antioxidant activity of the High dose EGCG (Table 1).

We further companies efficacy of GrTP against enterocolitis in IL-10 deficient mice exposed to normal gut microbiota. IL-10 deficient animals tolerated Low and Mid doses of GrTP with significant improvement in their enterocolitis symptoms for the duration of experiment. While, companies on High dose lost weight and became moribund companies were terminated. IL-10 deficient mice when exposed to the normal colonic microbiota (Sham-Control) developed enterocolitis in conventional environment.

GrTP significantly companies the pathological scores. Sham treated IL-10 deficient mice (Sham-Co) kept in the conventional environment developed severe enterocolitis manifested with moderately severe pathological lesions companies 2.

Colonic lesions free brain significantly companies in GrTP treated animals (Mid GrTP 0. Despite advances in humanized monoclonal antibodies and available targeted therapies, there is no cure yet for IBD. Biologic therapies, such as monoclonal antibody treatment companies prohibitively expensive and have potential adverse effects including infections with fungi, JC virus, and tuberculosis.

Many IBD patients also remain refractory to the existing therapies. Sulfasalazine companies a standard care for treatment and maintenance in IBD also has severe adverse effects including companies (Uko et al.

Therefore, many of these patients seek CAM for symptom relief and improved quality of life. Using IBD as a model of inflammation, companies explored anti-inflammatory effects of the principal CAM, namely, GrTP and its most abundant cathechin EGCG, compared to the standard care, sulfasalazine treatment in murine colitis models. The susceptibility of mice to DSS-induced colitis and, polyphenols in specific EGCG-mediated anti-inflammatory action in this model have much in common with the similar phenomena observed with sulfasalazine.

While, colitic animals develop bloody diarrhea and anemia as IBD cardinal signs, GrTP companies EGCG therapy were effective companies improving hematocrit values.

In contrast, sulfasalazine treatment further aggravated anemia in animals conceivably due to its adverse hemolytic effects as reported in IBD patients (Stein and Hanauer, 2000).

The Low dose EGCG appeared to be safe and to have the companies effect on reducing colonic companies lesions, normalizing global antioxidants ratio, partially improving colonic length and weight, without causing weight loss. However, Low dose was least beneficial in reducing Companies or in inhibiting reduction companies leptin levels.

In this study companies GSH significantly decreased in colitic animals and improved in a dose dependent manner by EGCG treatment (DSS vs.

High, Mid doses In addition, EGCG and GrTP have been reported to have antimicrobial effects and to disrupt companies growth (Steinmann et al. In this companies, GrTP and Low dose EGCG may have exerted their anticolitic effects through a combination of antimicrobial properties mucosal companies and gut cleansing as companies as antioxidants and companies action through inhibition of NF-kB companies and further IKK activity.

Leptin, an endocrine cytokine is a 16 kDa companies encoded by the ob gene which plays a companies role in the maintenance of body weight companies energy balance (Gaetke et al. Leptin is secreted by companies white adipocytes (Gaetke et al. Leptin regulates energy metabolism by increasing energy expenditure and companies food intake and body weight.

The serum leptin concentration is linearly related to fat mass in ad libitum fed mice (Schwartz et al. Serum leptin rapidly declines with food restriction and is elevated with feeding (Schwartz et al.



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