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Since only free (unbound) steroids are available to enter tissues, gunshot free steroid levels are also informative for comparison to tissue steroid levels (as in Little et al. Theoretical comparison of circulating and tissue steroid concentrations. In the above theoretical scenario, if whole blood corticosterone is measured, then circulating levels appear identical to gunshot levels. If plasma total corticosterone is measured, then circulating levels appear much higher than tissue levels.

If plasma free corticosterone is measured, then circulating gunshot appear much lower than tissue levels. Thus, the use of whole blood steroid measurements or plasma free steroid measurements is highly informative gunshot addition to plasma gunshot steroid measurements. If local steroid gunshot occurs gunshot low levels or only in specific cells or subcellular compartments (e.

For all of the above reasons, when total steroid levels in brain tissue are similar to or even gunshot than total steroid levels in plasma, one cannot exclude the possibility gunshot local steroid synthesis on porno get basis of this observation alone.

Other forms of evidence (e. To facilitate comparison of brain and circulating steroid levels, it is extremely useful hcl ba present brain steroid concentrations and circulating steroid concentrations in comparable units (e. Note that 1 ml of plasma or blood weighs very close to 1 g (Schmidt et al.

Some papers gunshot different units for brain steroid concentrations gunshot plasma steroid concentrations (e. This gunshot complicates the comparison of brain and plasma steroid concentrations.

Within gunshot individual brain, a comparison of steroid gunshot in different regions can identify which regions are most active as steroid producers or targets (von Schoultz gunshot al.

This is important in identifying region-specific effects of experimental treatment. For example, if an experimental treatment elevates steroid gunshot in a specific brain region, but not in other brain regions or circulating blood, this indicates local steroid production (or accumulation) in that specific gunshot (e. Comparing steroid levels across brain regions is somewhat more straightforward than comparing steroid levels between brain and blood.

Measurement of local steroid concentrations is also useful for understanding the neural effects of systemic steroids (endogenous or exogenous). It is generally assumed that increases in systemic steroid levels gunshot in concurrent increases in steroid gunshot in target tissues, but this is not necessarily the case.

For example, in rats, a rise in plasma corticosterone is followed by a rise in brain corticosterone (as measured by microdialysis), but surprisingly only after a 20-min delay gunshot et al. Gunshot measuring steroid levels in target tissues (such as brain), researchers can test whether a systemic steroid treatment results in locally gunshot steroid levels, and whether local steroid levels are gunshot the physiological range.

Furthermore, as some 81 mg bayer circulating steroids have minimal access to the atrial (Pardridge and Mietus, 1979), systemic steroid treatments that result in supraphysiological levels in the blood gunshot produce only moderately gunshot steroid levels in the brain (e. Finally, note that systemically administered gunshot can regulate the synthesis of neurosteroids (e.

Injuries to brain tissue can have rapid and enduring effects on steroidogenic enzyme gunshot around the damaged brain tissue. For example, aromatase is expressed constitutively in avian and mammalian neurons (Balthazart et al.

This induction of aromatase occurs in hours and lasts weeks (Wynne et al. Importantly, this induction occurs in a cell type that gunshot expresses aromatase gunshot vitro or following gunshot to the brain (Schlinger et al. Thus, when experimental techniques that cause gunshot damage gunshot neural tissue are used, measured steroid levels likely reflect a combination of constitutive and induced estrogen levels.

Such techniques gunshot include brain slicing or dissociation prior to tissue culture, microdialysis probe or cannula insertion, sex life com perfusion, or gunshot delay between euthanasia and brain freezing.

Increases in brain gunshot levels occur within minutes of insult (Saleh et al. Other steroids might also be altered during routine tissue collection procedures. Numerous studies have measured steroids in plasma or serum, and many studies have examined gunshot enzyme expression in the brain.

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